Friday, February 5, 2010

Judgment at Nuremberg (1961)

ये फिल्म २००६ में मैंने पहली बार डीवीडी पर देखी थी। तब से अब तक मैं इस फिल्म को बीस बार से भी अधिक देख चूका हूं। ये फिल्म मुझे कितनी पसंद है, इसका ये एक संकेत भर है। और इस फिल्म में अगर सबसे अधिक कोई हिस्सा मुझे पसंद है, तो वो है इसका वो हिस्सा, जिसमें फैसला सुनाया जाता है। वो पूरे संवाद मैं बार-बार सुनता हूं। ब्लॉग पर भी डाल देने का मन हुआ, ताकि मित्रों के साथ भी इसे शेयर किया जा सके।

"The trial conducted before this tribunal began over eight months ago. The record of evidence is more than ten thousand pages long and final arguments of counsel have been concluded.

Simple murders and atrocities do not constitute the gravamen of the charges in this indictment. Rather, the charge is that of conscious participation in a nationwide, government-organized system of cruelty and injustice in violation of every moral and legal principle known to all civilized nations. The tribunal has carefully studied the record and found therein abundant evidence to support beyond a reasonable doubt the charges against these defendants.

Herr Rolfe in his very skillful defense has asserted that there are others who must share the ultimate responsibility for what happened here in Germany.

There is truth in this.

The real complaining party at the bar in this courtroom is civilization. But the tribunal does say that the men in the dock are responsible for their actions.

Men who sat in black robes in judgment on other men….
Men who took part in the enactment of laws and decrees...
the purpose of which was the extermination of human beings.

Men who, in executive positions... actively participated in the enforcement of these laws illegal even under German law.

The principle of criminal law in every civilized society has this in common:
Any person who sways another to commit murder any person who furnishes the lethal weapon for the purpose of the crime...any person who is an accessory to the crime is guilty.

Herr Rolfe... further asserts that the defendant Janning was an extraordinary jurist and acted in what he thought was the best interest of his country. There is truth in this also. Janning, to be sure is a tragic figure. We believe he loathed the evil he did.

But compassion for the present torture of his soul must not beget forgetfulness of the torture and the death of millions by the government of which he was a part. Janning's record and his fate illuminate the most shattering truth that has emerged from this trial. If he and all of the other defendants had been degraded perverts if all of the leaders of the Third Reich had been sadistic monsters and maniacs then these events would have no more moral significance than an earthquake, or any other natural catastrophe.

But this trial has shown that under a national crisis ordinary, even able and extraordinary men can delude themselves into the commission of crimes so vast and heinous that they beggar the imagination. No one who has sat through the trial can ever forget them. Men sterilized because of political belief. A mockery made of friendship and faith. The murder of children... How easily it can happen. There are those in our own country, too who today speak of the protection of country of survival.

A decision must be made in the life of every nation at the very moment when the grasp of the enemy is at its throat. Then it seems that the only way to survive is to use the means of the enemy to rest survival upon what is expedient, to look the other way.

The answer to that is: Survival as what? A country isn't a rock. It's not an extension of one's self. It's what it stands for. It's what it stands for when standing for something is the most difficult.

Before the people of the world let it now be noted that here in our decision, this is what we stand for:



and the value of a single human being.

The marshal will produce before the tribunal the defendant Hahn.

Emil Hahn...
the tribunal finds you guilty and sentences you to life imprisonment.

(Today you sentence me. Tomorrow the Bolsheviks sentence you. - Emil Hahn)

The marshal will produce the defendant Hoffstetter before the tribunal.

Friedrich Hoffstetter...

the tribunal finds you guilty and sentences you to life imprisonment.

The marshal will produce the defendant Lammpe before the tribunal.

Werner Lammpe...
the tribunal finds you guilty and sentences you to life imprisonment.

The marshal will produce the defendant Ernst Janning before the tribunal.

Ernst Janning...

the tribunal finds you guilty and sentences you to life imprisonment.

Justice Ives dissenting---

I wish to point out strongly my dissenting vote from the decision of this tribunal as stated by Justice Haywood, and in which Justice Norris concurred. The issue of the actions of the defendants who believed they were acting in the best interests of their country is an issue that cannot be decided in a courtroom alone. It can only be decided objectively in years to come, in the true perspective of history."